Publication 590-A (2023): Contributions to Individual Retirement Arrangements (IRAs)

Publication 590-A, also known as Pub 590a, is an official resource from the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) that provides taxpayers with comprehensive information about contributing to Individual Retirement Arrangements (IRAs).

What is Publication 590-A?

Publication 590-A, also known as 590a, is an official IRS resource that provides comprehensive guidance on contributing to Individual Retirement Arrangements (IRAs) in the US, covering  details like eligibility requirements, contribution limits, tax benefits, and other crucial information for individuals.

Who should use this publication?

This publication is beneficial for anyone considering contributing to an IRA, including:

A. Individuals seeking to save for retirement: IRAs offer various tax advantages to help individuals save for their future.

B. Tax professionals assisting clients with retirement planning: Understanding the contribution rules helps make informed decisions with clients.

C. Financial advisors guiding individuals on retirement savings: Publication 590-A clarifies the contribution guidelines for IRAs.

What is an IRA?

An IRA is a tax-advantaged retirement savings account that allows individuals to contribute pre-tax or after-tax dollars, depending on the IRA type. Contributions grow tax-deferred, meaning you don't pay taxes on earnings until withdrawal. Distributions from traditional IRAs are generally taxed as income, while Roth IRAs offer tax-free qualified distributions if certain requirements are met.

Types of IRAs:

There are two primary IRA types:

1. Traditional IRA: Contributions may be tax-deductible (subject to income limits), but distributions are generally taxed as income in retirement.

2. Roth IRA: Contributions are not tax-deductible, but qualified distributions are generally tax-free and penalty-free.

Benefits of Contributing to IRAs:

A. Potential tax deductions or tax-free growth: Contributions to traditional IRAs may be tax-deductible, and Roth IRAs provide tax-free growth and qualified distributions.

B. Compound interest: Contributions and earnings can grow tax-deferred, maximizing long-term savings potential.

Key Points of Publication 590-A (2023):


  1. Anyone with earned income (wages, salaries, commissions, etc.) can contribute to an IRA.
  2. Income limits may affect the deductibility of contributions to traditional IRAs. Use the IRS website or consult a tax professional to determine your eligibility.

Contribution Limits:

  1. The annual contribution limit for both traditional and Roth IRAs in 2023 is $6,500 for individuals under 50 and $7,500 for those 50 or older.
  2. Catch-up contributions are available for individuals age 50 and over.

Tax Treatment of Contributions:

  1. Contributions to traditional IRAs may be tax-deductible, depending on your income and coverage under an employer-sponsored retirement plan.
  2. Contributions to Roth IRAs are not tax-deductible, but qualified distributions are generally tax-free and penalty-free.

Deadlines and Distribution Rules:

  1. The deadline to contribute to an IRA for the tax year 2023 is the tax filing deadline, typically April 15, 2024 (with extensions).
  2. Different rules and penalties apply to distributions from IRAs, including mandatory distributions starting at age 73 (72 for individuals who reached 72 before December 31, 2022).

For the current year's Publication 590-A, click here.